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“Olfaction, human vs Artificial”: is it possible to measure odors?

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Pre-conference tutorial at CSGA

It is our great pleasure to welcome all participants to the ISOEN first Tutorial, organized by ISOCS .

The aim of the ISOEN Tutorial is to address the fundamentals of Olfaction and Taste science and discuss some recent development/applications in the field of on-line measurements and odor/taste mixtures.
The lectures are given at the graduate level and span from the scientific basic principles to the implementation in research.
They are intended for PhD students and young researchers in the field, researchers who have recently entered the interdisciplinary field of E-Nose and E-Tongue, and for colleagues who want to brush up their fundamental knowledge in certain fields.
This tutorial comprises 7 lectures of approximatively 45 mins to be given on Sunday the 28 of June at CSGA in Dijon.
The Tutorial is open to all conference participants.
A modest registration fee, including lecture notes and buffet lunch is requested.

ISOCS  pre-conf Tutorial registration is available on the ISOCS website   

Preliminary programme

 

Lecturer

Registration & presentation of the Tutorial

Patrick Mielle, Jean-Luc LeQuéré

Sensory of olfaction and taste
 

Physiology of olfaction & taste

Loîc Briand

GC-olfaction & recombination

Élisabeth Guichard

 

 Coffee break

Odors perception and interactions
 

Sensory evaluation

Sophie Nicklaus 

Perceptual interactions

Thierry Thomas-Danguin

 

Buffet lunch

Instrumental & pairing techniques
 

GC-MS / sample preparation

Jean-Luc LeQuéré

Environmental odours assesment

Anne-Claude Romain

API-MS (on-line & global measurements)

Jean-Luc LeQuéré

   
 

Shift to Chemosens
(Analytical & sensory Platform)

Visit of the Platform facilities
 

Analytical

Etienne Sémon (tbc)

Sensory

Jean-Luc LeQuéré

See also

Lecturers

Loïc Briand
 
© Loïc Briand

Loïc Briand


Lecture : Physiology of taste and olfaction

Summary : The olfactory and gustatory systems enable to detect and discriminate thousands of molecules, with the help of hundreds of chemoreceptors receptors. We will present the biological basis of odorant and tasting molecules by animals, from insect to mammals, focusing on sensory receptors.

Keywords : olfaction, taste, receptor, odor coding, combinatorial code, stimuli, physiology

Loïc Briand studied biochemistry and molecular biology at the University of Nantes (France), where he received his PhD. He did his post-doc at the University of Glasgow (Great-Britain), Institute of Molecular Cell and Systems Biology. In 1999, Loïc Briand became interested in olfaction and joined the INRA center of Jouy-en-Josas (suburb of Paris) as Research-associate in a group led by Jean-Claude Pernollet.
In 2006, Loïc Briand started is own research group at the Center for Taste and Feeding Behaviour in Dijon (France), dealing with soluble (odorant-binding proteins, sweet-tasting proteins and receptor proteins involved in chemical senses (olfaction and taste perception).


Website :  Loïc Briand

Élisabeth Guichard
 
© Élisabeth Guichard

Élisabeth Guichard


Lecture : Identification of key odorant compounds by GC-O followed by recombination studies

Summary : This lecture will present the different methods currently used to identify the key odorant compounds from food by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and select the most pertinent based on quantification of their impact on odour intensity. As GC-O only allows to evaluate the individual compounds after their chroamtographic elution, there is thus a need to evaluate their impact in mixture thanks to recombination studies. We will present different strategies used to test these miwtures of odorants in comparison with the real food sample.

Keywords : aroma, gas chromatography, olfactometry, mixture of odorants, recombination, similarity

Elisabeth Guichard is an engineer from National Institute of Agronomy (INAPG, France) specialised in physicochemistry, and obtained a PhD in Agronomic sciences on the raspberry aroma in 1983. She has been recruited at INRA in 1979 as Research Assistant and is now Research Director in CSGA (Center for Taste and Feeding Behaviour) at INRA (Dijon, France). She is co-leader of a research group on “molecular interactions, in-mouth mechanisms and flavour perception”.
She has more than 150 publications in peer review international journals and more than 260 presentations in congress (80 oral communications) in the field of food science, interactions between aroma compounds and food matrix, in-mouth aroma release in relation with perception. She has been editor of 6 books and author of 44 book chapters.


Website :  Élisabeth Guichard

Sophie Nicklaus
 
© Sophie Nicklaus

Sophie Nicklaus


Lecture : Sensory evaluation of taste and olfactory sensation

Summary : During the ISOEN titorial, she will present the main sensory evaluation methods in the analytical domain, applied to study taste and olfactory sensations, such as threshold testing, discrimination tests, sensory profile, and temporal methods.

Keywords : sensory profile, discrimination tests, threshold measurements, temporal analysis

Sophie Nicklaus , PhD is a Research Director at INRA (French National Institute of Agricultural Research), in the Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l’Alimentation (Center for Taste and Feeding Behaviour) in Dijon, France. She received her PhD in Food Science from the University of Burgundy (Dijon, France). She started her career managing a sensory evaluation plateform, applying the main sensory evaluation methods (sensory profile, discrimination tests, hedonic and consumer tests). She has been studying children’s eating behaviour for the past 15 years, looking at the role of food-related inputs (sensory properties, energy density) in the development and evolution of infants and children’s liking and food intake, using experimental and epidemiological approaches (OPALINE and ELFE cohort). She is in particular interested in understanding the impact of early eating experiences on later eating behavior, and their contribution to health. She serves as a member for several scientific committees; and is an expert with the French Ministry of Health for the National Program on Nutrition and Health (“PNNS”).


Website :  Sophie Nicklaus

Thierry Thomas-Danguin
 
© Thierry Thomas-Danguin

Thierry Thomas-Danguin


Lecture : Perceptual interactions: the strategy of the senses to process complex signals

Summary : This lecture presents the nature and mechanisms of perceptual interactions within the olfactory system and between the chemical senses. In a first part, the theoretical aspects of odor mixtures interactions are covered and examples from both human and animal studies are provided to support theory. It discusses the issue of odor mixtures interactions in the context of aroma/odor analysis. In a second part, cross-modal interactions are reviewed and the emphasis is made on how sensory integration constitutes a key process in complex food flavor perception.

Keywords : odor, flavor, mixture, smell-taste interactions, sensory integration, perception, psychophysics

Thierry Thomas-Danguin , PhD, is research fellow at INRA the French National Institute for Agricultural Research. He works at the CSGA (Centre for Taste and Feeding Behavior) in Dijon. He has a background in chemistry, psychophysics, psychophysiology of the chemical senses and sensory sciences. He has been studying odor mixtures for 20 years and authored over 40 scientific papers. He performs research on the perception of complex chemical stimuli released from food and on cross-modal interactions within the chemical senses, while trying to decipher the chemical and biological mechanisms underpinning food flavor perception.


Website :  Thierry Thomas-Danguin

Jean-Luc Le Quéré
 
© Jean-Luc Le Quéré

Jean-Luc Le Quéré


Lecture 1 : Sample preparation and identification of volatile compounds

Summary :Due to their physicochemical properties aroma compounds are amenable to instrumental analysis only if they are separated from the food matrix by a suitable extraction procedure. However, as no single method yields a “true” picture of a food aroma, complete identification of flavour volatiles is rarely attained with a single sample preparation.
In this talk, before presenting the methods of identification chiefly based on GC-MS, we will present the various techniques available for sample treatment and flavour extraction.

Lecture 2 : On-line and global measurements of aromas

Summary : Perception of flavour is a dynamic process as flavour molecules are released progressively from food during consumption. The methods currently used to evaluate food flavour are still essentially based on sensory evaluation by panels of experts.
In this talk, we will present the latest developments made for relating sensory measurements to flavour release ( in vitro and in vivo applications) and for substituting instruments for humans to globally assess food flavour more quickly and at reduced costs. The presentation will emphasize the use of atmospheric ionization mass spectrometric techniques.

Keywords : GC-MS, GC-O, API-MS, PTR-MS, extraction, sample pretreatment

Jean-Luc Le Quéré received a PhD degree in chemistry from the University of Western Brittany in Brest (F) in 1982. He did a post-doctoral stay at the University of Glasgow (UK) in the department of chemistry.
He joined the Aroma Research Laboratory of INRA in Dijon as an analytical chemist in 1983 and specialized in the analyses of aroma molecules using spectrometric methods: NMR, Fourier transform infrared and more particularly mass spectrometry. Now with the Centre for Taste and Feeding Behaviour, he is in charge of methods development dealing with in vitro and in vivo flavour release using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS).


Website :  Jean-Luc Le Quéré

Anne-Claude Romain
 
© Anne-Claude Romain

Anne-Claude Romain


Lecture : Environmental odour Assessment

Summary : Malodours emitted by industrial, agricultural, service activities and solid/liquid waste treatments are responsible for most of the complaints in the environment in our civilised countries. This pollution is a major concern for local authorities but the assessment of this pollution is a real challenge. This lecture presents the different methods of sampling and the sensorial measurements usually employed to assess these “environmental” odours. The quantification units (ou/m³, SU, percentile…) are explained. Laboratory but also in-field techniques combined with air dispersion models without forgetting the neighbours surveys are exposed. To conclude, a discussion on the uncertainties of the different approaches is proposed to the participants.

Keywords : odour pollution; environmental annoyance; sampling; dynamic olfactometry; in-field malodour measurement; air dispersion modelling

Anne-Claude Romain , studied chemistry and environmental sciences at the University of Liège (ULg, Belgium), and obtained a PhD on the use of sensor arrays for environmental malodour monitoring. Currently, she is the leader of the research group ”Sensing of Atmospheres and Monitoring” (SAM) at the Faculty of Sciences and is cofounder of the spin-off Odometric. Associate professor at ULg, she gives lectures on atmospheric pollution, odour annoyance characterization, indoor air quality, environmental metrology and data treatment. Odour pollution and indoor air quality are her main areas of interest to develop new methods of monitoring.


Website :  Anne-Claude Romain

Written by: Local organization
Date of creation: 12 March 2015
Date of last update: 16 June 2015
Contact: Isoen2015@dijon.inra.fr